Researchers reported yesterday that the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), or a very closely related virus, existed in camels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2003—9 years before it was first found in humans.Writing in Emerging Infectious Diseases, the scientists said they tested camel serum samples that had been collected in 2003 and 2013 and found that most of them—including all of the 2003 specimens—had antibodies to MERS-CoV.”Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific [same species], virus long before the first human MERS cases,” says the report by researchers from Germany, the Netherlands, and the UAE. Christian Drosten, MD, of the University of Bonn was the senior author.The first known human MERS cases occurred in Jordan in April 2012. Since then, 177 cases, 74 of them fatal, have been confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The vast majority have been reported on and near the Arabian Peninsula, most of them in Saudi Arabia.The new findings add to the growing evidence that MERS-CoV, or close cousins thereof, circulates in camels, but they don’t answer the key question whether camels are the source of human MERS-CoV infections. Researchers say they need to spell out the genetic sequences of the camel viruses and compare them with human MERS-CoV sequences to unravel that.The findings also raise the question why no human MERS cases were discovered until 2012, if MERS-like viruses were circulating in Middle Eastern camels for years before that. Experts speculate that the virus might not have been genetically equipped to infect humans until very recently.Multiple serologic studies published last year pointed to MERS-CoV-like antibodies in camels in several countries, including Oman, Egypt, the Canary Islands, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, but did not find the virus itself in the animals.In mid-December, scientists found that three camels on a Qatari farm were infected with MERS-CoV viruses very similar to those in two humans who owned and worked at the farm. But they couldn’t discern if the camels had passed the virus to the people or vice versa, or if both hosts acquired it from some other source.In the new study, the research team collected 651 serum samples from camels in the UAE, including 151 frozen samples obtained in 2003 and 500 gathered in 2013. The animals included young racing camels, adult livestock camels acquired from several other countries, and camels raised at a government veterinary lab.Excluding cross-reactionsIn testing the samples for MERS-CoV, the team took pains to avoid being misled by cross-reactions to bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which belongs to the same genus as MERS-CoV. They used a series of three tests, including an immunofluroescence assay for the MERS-CoV spike protein, a protein microarray, and a MERS-CoV-specific neutralization assay.Overall, the authors found that 632 of 651 camels (97.1%) had antibodies against MERS-CoV, and this included all 151 of the 2003 samples. In addition, they found that 389 samples (59.8%) had high levels of MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibodies (titers higher than 1,280).The neutralization assay made it possible to rule out cross-reactions between MERS-CoV and BCoV, the report says.The researchers found that antibodies were more prevalent in adult camels than in young racing camels, which suggests that camels may be infected as juveniles.They also tested 16 Bactrian camels from a German zoo—a different species from the dromedary camels in the UAE—and found no MERS-CoV antibodies. They said that finding may mean that Bactrian camels are less susceptible to the virus, but a more likely explanation is that the virus has a restricted geographic range.In other steps, the team used polymerase chain reaction testing to look for coronaviruses in fecal samples from 182 of the camels. In two samples they found material that matched up with a strain of BCoV, but there was no evidence of MERS-CoV in the samples.”The high rates of antibody prevalence in contemporary serum samples and samples from 2003 suggest that the virus has spread in camelids for some time,” the authors comment. “However, recognition of camelids as the bona fide reservoir for MERS-CoV has to await sequencing of camelid-associated MERS-related CoV.”They add, “Our finding of high neutralizing antibody titers in camelids is suggestive (but not evidentiary) of the presence of viruses conspecific with MERS-CoV in camelids. Final confirmation will depend on the identification of virus sequences in camelids, which should expectably be closely related to human-specific MERS-CoV sequences.”Vincent Racaniello, PhD, author of Virology Blog and professor of microbiology and immunology at Columbia University, who was not involved in the study, said the findings, in combination with other recent studies, make it clear that viruses related to MERS-CoV have been circulating in camels for some time. The virus may have jumped to camels from bats, but that remains to be demonstrated through sequencing of bat and camel isolates, he added.”It is important to note that serological assays cannot prove that camels are intermediate hosts for the virus, or that the virus originated from bats; only sequence analysis can provide this information,” Racaniello commented by e-mail. He noted that only one study has described any camel MERS-CoV sequences, and no infectious MERS-CoV virus has yet been isolated from a camel.As for why human MERS cases were not detected earlier, he said, “I would speculate that if camels were infected with a MERS-CoV like virus in 2003, then that virus simply did not have the proper nucleotide sequence to infect humans. It might only take one base change, or a handful, to let the 2003 virus infect humans. Perhaps the ‘right’ virus had not yet emerged in camels in 2003. The virus might have only recently entered camels (not long before 2003) and did not have a chance to spawn the mutants that could infect humans.”Other experts commented on the findings in a Canadian Press (CP) story published today, focusing on why no human cases were seen before 2012, if the virus was circulating in camels.Michael T. Osterholm, PhD, MPH, said the possibilities include that there were no human cases from 2003 to 2012, or that there were a few cases in those earlier years, but they went undetected until a change in the virus increased their number. Osterholm is director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, publisher of CIDRAP News.Anthony Mounts, the WHO’s lead scientist on MERS, told the CP he favored the latter explanation. He said the available genetic sequences of MERS suggest that the human virus emerged around mid-2011. That would suggest that the 2003 antibodies might be to a virus that was an ancestor of the current MERS-CoV but not exactly the same virus. That ancestral virus might have caused some human infections that went undetected, he said.Meyer B, Muller MA, Corman VM, et al. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Apr;20(4) (Early online release) [Full text]See also: Related Dec 16, 2013, CIDRAP News storyJan 3 CP story
Advertisement i5NBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs24gWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E41qrq( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) 8oielWould you ever consider trying this?😱3kgk8Can your students do this? 🌚afnRoller skating! Powered by Firework The biggest star in British Boxing Anthony Joshua is all set to fight on April 14, even though the opponent has not been revealed yet, the venue which is Wembley Stadium was booked way before Anthony Joshua’s title defence against Alexander Povetkin in September.Advertisement Even though the fans were furious as to why he didn’t fight American heavyweight champion Deontay Wilder who would eventually fight Tyson Fury earlier this month in what is described as the biggest heavyweight fight on the American soil in the last fifteen years.Advertisement There were talks about the Wilder side even paying the British star $50 Million to fight him next. But the promoters of Joshua i.e Eddie Hearn has repeatedly said that they have never received any such offer.However, Joshua revealed that the American’s offer wasn’t as simple as the public made it out to be.Advertisement He said: “It’s the first time I’ve ever really had issues on the financial side with a fighter.“So, let’s say that fifty million we talked about. Listen, it’s a hell of a lot of money and it was an honour to even have that number thrown at me!“But then when you dissected it and what it actually it was, it was kind of like a rights fee – ‘We own you for this amount of money’.“The issue I had was that I’ve got long-standing contracts in place with certain partnerships. So you may put that money forward and think that you own me 100% but you may only own 50% so that makes their 50% worth 25%.“So when you start getting into the intricacies of a contract and what the real value is, that’s when that starts taking place.“So the $50m was unbelievable, it’s a great number, but there are things in place that don’t make that $50m worth it to the person paying it.”As of right now, it looks like we might not see Wilder vs Joshua in April of 2019 either as the British star has hinted about fighting his former rival Dillian Whyte.Also Read:Twitter reacts to the controversial DRAW between Tyson Fury and Deontay Wilder Advertisement
First half tries from Caolan Blade and Gavin Thornbury gave Connacht a 14-7 interval lead. Second half tries from man of the match Jack Carty and Matt Healy ensured a famous win for Andy Friend’s side, who will now play Ulster away in the quarter finals. On a dramatic afternoon in the Sportsground, Connacht have beaten Cardiff Blues by 29 points to 22 in the PRO 14 to ensure champions cup rugby returns to Galway next season. It finished Connacht 29 Cardiff Blues 22print WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Email
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SPURS fans are licking their lips over the prospect of Juan Foyth after the Argentine put in another outstanding performance for his national side.The 20-year-old ace picked up the man of the match award as Argentina rolled out 2-0 winners against Mexico in a comfortable victory.3 Foyth won man of the match for his performance vs MexicoCredit: Getty Images – Getty3 The Argentine scored his first senior goal for Tottenham against Crystal PalaceCredit: ReutersFoyth had a dodgy start to his Tottenham career earlier this month after conceding two penalties in a nightmare Premier League debut.But the youngster has bounced back brilliantly since then – scoring the only goal in Tottenham’s narrow victory against Crystal Palace.And fans of the north London side will be delighted their up-and-coming centre-back is performing well for his country too.Argentina’s caretaker coach Lionel Scaloni also couldn’t hide his praise for the starlet.3 Argentina caretaker boss heaped praise on the 20-year-oldCredit: AFP or licensorsIts taken time for us to see him play but perhaps Juan Foyth could be a very good centre half!— Christian (@Christianjw92) November 17, 2018 Juan Foyth receives back to back MOTM awards for Spurs & Argentina respectively After giving 2 penalties away on Debut, Poch did what only a handful of world class managers would doTold him to forget it, and go out there and show the whole world what he can doWhat a guy 💪🏻— Pee 🇮🇪🏴 (@itstartedin1882) November 17, 2018 People raved about Juan Foyth when he signed for @spurs and now I know why. The lad has serious potential and seems to get better everygame. Now gets MotM on his Argentina debut. Another masterstoke by Poch @1MickyHazard— Lee Mayes (@Mezzy14) November 17, 2018 Juan Foyth will certainly always remember November 2018. What a month. https://t.co/mkHVRlswKN— Alasdair Gold (@AlasdairGold) November 17, 2018 In the post-match conference, he said: “We are very happy with Foyth, we are talking about a great centre-back, with a great future, it was a risk to start him play but he did it very well.”What’s more impressive is the centre-back played so well in a completely makeshift defence.Spaloni decided to mix it up and start the trio of Foyth, Villareal’s Funes Mori and Ajax’s Nicolas Tagliafico.Mauricio Pochettino looks to have found another dime in the 20-year-old.Neymar and Edinson Cavani clash in Brazil vs Uruguay matchfootball newsPicturedHARRY’S HEROES Kane says goodbye to Tottenham team-mates Vertonghen and VormLive Bloggunners newsArsenal transfer news LIVE – Latest updates from the EmiratesLive BlogUNITED LATESTMan Utd transfer news LIVE: All the gossip and updates from Old TraffordLive BlogTRANSFER NEWS LIVESalah admits he could LEAVE Liverpool, how Sancho will fit in Utd XILive Blogblues newsChelsea transfer news LIVE – Latest updates from Stamford BridgeRevealedFORTUNE TELLERIncredible Hawkeye blunder saved Villa’s lives – but Smith says it was karmaNEXT SEASONAaron Connolly says ‘see you next year’ after scoring goal to end seasonLive BlogJU BEAUTYJuventus vs Sampdoria LIVE: Stream, TV channel, kick-off time, team newsPED’S GONEPedro’s goodbye to Chelsea before Roma move as Cesc takes credit for signing himBANK LAMPARDChelsea scoop £50m Euro bonus as Lamps learns ‘a million things’ in debut year
Tigers host Rapids on ThursdayBy Paul LeckerSports ReporterNEENAH — The Marshfield volleyball team finished 2-2 to take seventh place at the Neenah Invitational on Saturday at Neenah High School.The Tigers’ losses were both to top-ranked teams in the state. Neenah, ranked first in Division 1, beat Marshfield 25-23, 25-14, and the Tigers lost to Wausau Newman Catholic, No. 1 in Division 4, 25-17, 25-16.In the bronze bracket following pool play, Marshfield beat Kettle Moraine Lutheran 10-25, 25-13, 15-13 and Sun Prairie 25-19, 25-18 to win the bracket and finish seventh overall.Stephanie Rhodes had 26 kills and 22 digs; Anna Ripp had 63 assists, five service aces, and 25 digs; and Alexa Aumann added 25 kills and six blocks for the Tigers. Maureen Cassidy led the defense with 49 digs.“This was an incredibly competitive tournament that we were able to get back into this year, and I am really pleased with our play, especially the second half of the day,” Marshfield coach Dawn Sadowska said. “After a tough start, we didn’t give up and ended up with two really nice wins in the afternoon.. This will definitely prepare us for the second Valley tournament next weekend.”Marshfield hosts Wisconsin Rapids before playing the second Wisconsin Valley Conference tournament at D.C. Everest next Saturday.(Hub City Times Sports Reporter Paul Lecker is also the publisher of MarshfieldAreaSports.com.)
A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… marshall kirkpatrick Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Groupware#news#web Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Six months after announcing her decision to step down from four years of daily responsibilities at productivity mega-blog Lifehacker, Gina Trapani will announce today that she is joining San Diego based Pelotonics to advise the company on both product development and marketing. Trapani’s trusted voice has reviewed thousands of websites, services and workflows that aim to help people get more done online – so her decision to join a company in that market is one of the strongest endorsements we can imagine.Pelotonics describes itself as a group collaboration system built with “an eye toward adding certain intuitive pieces of functionality that Basecamp did not and would not launch.” We wrote about the company once before, when it integrated popular note taking service Evernote into its software. It’s exciting to ponder what Pelotonics plus Trapani will come up with. When it comes to web based productivity, Trapani literally wrote the book on it. She now writes regularly at a personal blog called Smarterware.For the sake of disclosure, and because it’s interesting, I should note that Pelotonics is a past client of my consulting practice (I have no ongoing financial interest in the company). One of the first things I advised Pelotonics’ Troy Malone to do was reach out to Gina Trapani – it was easy advice to give as their work couldn’t be more related, both live in San Diego and Gina is among the nicest people in the industry. For the firmly un-opportunistic author to join the company is a real surprise, though.Anyone interested in the future of workplace collaboration will now be all the more well served by keeping an eye on Pelotonics.
A serious pinch to the every expanding internet is expected to hit this summer. The supply of Internet Protocol addresses has been dwindling and will totally dry up this summer. An IP address is a short series of numbers with three dots between them, like 22.214.171.124. The problem is that all possible 4.3 billion IPV4 addresses are about to be totally allocated. Asia has been without new addresses since 2011 and North America is expected to begin running short this summer.Once the bank of unused IPV4 addresses runs out, those requesting new IP addresses in North America will be turned away from ARIN, the American Registry for Internet Numbers, because there simply are no more IPV4 addresses.Richard Jimmerson, ARIN’s CIO, who currently oversees ARIN’s registration services, told Ars Technica that “In the coming weeks, for the first time in history, an organization will come in and request IPv4 address space and qualify, but we won’t have it in our inventory to fulfill the request. We’ve been in phase four of the countdown plan for a year now. Currently, all requests are evaluated by two team members on a first-in, first-out basis. Soon there may be two organizations that have requested /11s. One will be approved first and get our last /11. The other will potentially qualify also and then go on the waiting list, or they’ll have to choose a smaller block size. Over the years, some IPv4 address space has been returned to the system. A lot of that has gone back to the IANA global pool. IANA has been redistributing that IPv4 space back equally to the five RIRs. It is possible still that IPv4 address space will be returned or reclaimed, for instance, when address holders go out of business or don’t pay their fees. We didn’t expect to see that anymore with the transfer system in place, but it’s still happening. This address space will be used to satisfy requests on the waiting list.”Vendors are slowly moving to the next IP standard: IPV6. IPV6 increases the number of internet addresses to 340 undecillion, or 340 followed by 36 zeroes, enough to assign an IP address to every atom on Earth. The move is happening slowly because older computer equipment wasn’t designed to be able to understand the IPV6 protocol.
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TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Eintracht Frankfurt striker Haller has no Newcastle regretsby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveEintracht Frankfurt striker Sebastien Haller has no regrets turning down a move to the Premier League last summer.Haller attracted interest from Newcastle United at the start of the season.He told DAZN: “Nobody had to convince me. It was normal for me to stay here. “My first season with Eintracht was okay, but not outstanding. I wanted to stay with the idea to improve myself and continue to achieve great things with this club.”There is always a difference between what you want and what you can do. I have no problem with moving to a new country. But maybe I will stay the rest of my career here in Frankfurt.”