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Former Polish Prime Minister examines democratic transition

first_imgFormer Prime Minister of Poland Hanna Suchocka visited campus Tuesday evening to address a public audience in the Jordan Auditorium about the transition of Poland from a communist to democratic nation at the 2014 Nanovic Forum lecture.Ann Marie Soller | The Observer A. James McAdams, the director of the Nanovic Institute for European Studies since 2002, introduced Suchoka, who was the first woman to serve as the Polish Prime Minister, and explained her selection as the 2014 Nanoic Forum lecturer.“The founders of the Nanovic Forum, Robert and Elizabeth Nanovic, had a brilliant idea to bring some of the most distinguished European leaders to Notre Dame in any field and give them the opportunity to engage students and faculty on whatever themes they wanted to in whatever form they wanted to,” McAdams said. “The idea was not simply to get famous people but instead to get people who had really made a difference — people who have changed the world in important ways and done so in a way that makes sense for Notre Dame’s distinctive mission and values.”McAdams said Suchocka, who played an integral role in converting Poland from a communist into a democratic nation, is a person who has made such a difference.Suchocka, who also served as Polish ambassador to the Holy See from 2002-2013, focused her remarks on the political and economic transformation of Poland in a lecture titled “Democratic Poland: 25 years After the Fall of Communism.”Suchocka began her lecture by noting the special nature of Poland in Central Europe as the first country in communist Europe to distinguish itself from Communism with public free democratic elections, held in June 1989. Suchocka served as Prime Minister from July 1993 to Oct. 1993.She said the situation in Poland between 1981 and 1988 was very depressed, catalyzed by the declaration of martial law in December of 1981, and it was not until the Polish Round Table Talks in April 1989 that the situation began to improve.“The Round Table Agreement opened the way for free democratic elections,” Suchocka said.The Agreement, by introducing the office of president and therefore negating the power of the Communist party general secretary, resulted in an election held on June 4, 1989 that transferred power to the non-Communist Solidarność party of Poland.Suchocka said the June elections were essential in the shift from communism to democracy.“I am of the opinion that as a consequence of the June elections that everything has changed,” Suchocka said. “After June 4 the political dynamism as a result of the elections went beyond the political round table agreement. It changed completely the whole political system. … We can see it is an agreement which opened the way to semi-democratic elections.”However, Suchocka said the transformation to a democratic nation was not without challenges, most notably, the public criticism to the economic changes of post-Communist Poland.The public reaction to the transformation of Poland was separated into political and economic spheres, she said.While most of the public supported the abolition of Communism, the public voiced much criticism over the economic changes that occurred as a result.“Society at that time was not completely prepared for such changes because we suddenly tried to establish a free market,” Suchocka said. “We tried to make better social conditions … but suddenly we faced this completely new phenomenon [the free market] that changed the nature of the economic system and society was not prepared.”Suchocka said public passivity and lack of political culture rooted in the history of a non-democratic nation also made the initial transition difficult.Despite the initial struggles of post-communist Poland, Suchocka said she found the resilient nature of Poland able to overcome and succeed as a democratic nation.Suchocka said what helped the new government prevail was the late formation of a constitution. The Constitution of Poland was not adopted until April 2, 1997 – almost a decade after the free elections.Suchocka said an immeadite formation of a constitution would have been rooted in old thinking. The passing of eight years allowed the government to face several ups and downs and realize what would construct the best policies for a democratic Poland.Tags: Communism, Democracy, Hanna Suchocka, Nanovic Forum, Nanovic Institute, Poland, Poland Prime Minister, Prime Ministerlast_img read more

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first_imgWeighing in at just 258g for the entire assembly, the Affilado retains adjustability through a system of spacers and slotted attachment points. The carbon saddle shell is able to be adjusted 25mm fore and aft, as well as +2/-2 degrees in angle by switching out the spacers between the shell and the rails. For the ultimate weight weenies, an integrated seat and seat post is an easy way to lose some grams. However, you had better like the saddle position since the one piece design means you won’t be adjusting it any time soon. Controltech’s answer to the problem is their new Affilado seat/seat post design that doesn’t abandon adjustability.Get the details next… In addition to the seat post being shaped for compliance, the saddle shell is fairly flexible, but this may still be one of those “comfortable” saddles. Controltech is looking into a new model in the near future that would bring some padding into the equation. Currently offered only in 31.6mm and 350mm long, the seat post has a 23mm offset. Retail price is 500 Euro.center_img The EXL line is their new mid level carbon line that features a nicely shaped carbon bar. Built with a 70mm compact reach, the bar features a 31.8mm diameter all the way to the drops, as well as swept back bar tops for improved ergonomics.We saw this in Taipei, but the MST line is their new Enduro line that is also marketed towards fatbikes. Their philosophy is that the wider 35mm clamp looks better in proportion to the bigger tires and tubes, as well as the bigger/heavier wheels benefiting from the improved stiffness. Available in both carbon and aluminum, the line includes flat and riser bars, stems from 50mm and a seat post.controltechbikes.comlast_img read more

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Odds & Ends: Kenny Leon & Chita Rivera to Be Honored by the Actors Fund & More

first_img Here’s a quick roundup of stories you may have missed today. Kenny Leon & Chita Rivera to Be Honored by the Actors FundThe Actors Fund has announced a talented foursome of honorees who will be hat-tipped at the human services organization’s 2018 gala. The Actors Fund’s Medal of Honor will be presented to Tony-winning director Kenny Leon (Children of a Lesser God), two-time Tony-winning actress Chita Rivera, Oscar-winning filmmaker Warren Beatty and Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman, who made her Broadway debut this season in The Parisian Woman. The Actors Fund’s 2018 gala will take place at the Marriott Marquis Hotel on May 14 at 6:00pm.Dance a Little Closer Originals to Toast Charles Strouse’s 90th Birthday in ConcertTony winner Len Cariou and Liz Robertson, stars of the original Broadway production of the 1983 Charles Strouse/Alan Jay Lerner musical Dance a Little Closer, will appear in a one-night concert of the infamous tuner at the Green Room 42 on April 16 at 7:00pm. Presented in honor of composer Strouse’s 90th birthday, the stars will perform the songs they originated in the legendary Broadway show, which closed on opening night. The company will also feature original cast member Cheryl Howard, along with Julia Knitel, Michael Osso, Ed Dixon, Thomas Dieter, Janet Fanale, Kimberly Faye Greenberg, Christine Knitel, Eric Knitel, Stearns Matthews, Paul Thomas Ryan and Kenneth Tigar. The concert will be directed by Steven Carl McCasland and music-directed by James Horan.Playwrights Horizons to Pay Tribute to Frozen Songwriters Off-Broadway’s Playwrights Horizons has announced Oscar-winning Frozen composer/lyricists Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez as the company’s 2018 gala honorees. The event will be held at 583 Park Avenue on May 7 at 6:00pm. In addition to their work on this season’s Disney musical Frozen, Robert Lopez is known for his tuners Avenue Q and The Book of Mormon, both of which earned him Tony Awards. Kristen Anderson-Lopez made Broadway history with her musical In Transit, which became the first all a cappella musical to run on the Great White Way.Spamilton Alum to Unearth Liza Minnelli’s Legendary 1979 Carnegie Hall Concert in Liza ’79Off-Broadway alum Larry Owens (Spamilton) will return to the stage in Liza ’79, a new immersive concert re-creating Liza Minnelli’s iconic 1979 Carnegie Hall engagement. Conceived by Ben Rimalower (Patti Issues), the show will play Joe’s Pub for five performances on June 11, 17, 18, 24 and July 2 at 9:30pm. Liza ’79 will utilize the theatrical concert format that Rimalower executed for the hit 2006 solo show Leslie Kritzer Is Patti LuPone at Les Mouches. Liza ’79 will feature music direction and arrangements by Matt Aument and choreography by Jason Wise. Kenny Leon(Photo: Emilio Madrid-Kuser) View Commentslast_img read more

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Forging Green Mountain Care: Cost-sharing explained

first_imgRelated Company: Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Centerby Morgan True vtdigger.org When costs are shared by individuals and insurers the price tag can influence patient behavior and have an impact on overall health care spending as well as health outcomes for patients.Cost sharing typically takes the form of coinsurance, the percentage of a service paid for by a health plan; copayments, a flat fee for health goods or services; and deductibles, a dollar amount one pays before insurance kicks in.Ellen Meara, an economist and professor at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. Dartmouth photoCost sharing lowers spending on services, but can also have unintended clinical side effects, according to Ellen Meara, an economist and professor at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice.For instance, a health plan with high copayments for prescription drugs is likely to reduce spending on pharmacy benefits. But that’s often because patients don’t buy the medication they need. The result? Expensive hospital visits that increase overall health care costs.“What’s important from a policy perspective is that cost sharing leads to reduced usage of all services, not just those with dubious value, but also services that are proven to increase health,” Meara said.The impact of cost sharing is acknowledged in the Affordable Care Act as well as Act 48, Vermont’s health reform law, which sets the state on a path to a first-in-the-nation universal health care program.Insurers offer high-deductible plans to discourage overuse, but making individuals liable for the first $5,000 worth of care is a deterrent that can discourage people from seeking important treatment.The Affordable Care Act requires certain preventive services to be excluded from deductibles in the growing number of high-deductible plans offered through the exchanges and on the wider individual market.Vermont has transitioned its entire individual market to Vermont Health Connect, the state-run insurance system.In designing Green Mountain Care, Act 48 directs the Green Mountain Care Board to consider waiving cost sharing for evidence-based clinical practices, those known to improve people’s health.This is known as value-based insurance design, Meara said. Large self-insured companies have experimented with value-based insurance to see if it would reduce costs and improve the health of their employees, she said.One way they’ve tried to do that is eliminating copayments on prescription drugs for employees with chronic conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes or asthma, with the hope that the patient will adhere to drug regimens and reduce the likelihood of hospital visits.What is also clear about cost sharing is that its potential negative impacts, such as avoiding important treatments because they are, or are perceived to be, cost prohibitive, disproportionately affect vulnerable groups, such as people with low-income or poor health. These populations often intersect, Meara said.That is why the platinum, gold, silver and bronze plans offered through the exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act have graduated cost sharing subsidies based on income. Vermont went a step further by offering subsidies for people with slightly higher incomes. For a comparison of the subsidy structure, click here.Act 48 directs the Green Mountain Care Board to design an income sensitive cost sharing formula as part of the universal health plan. The board must also consider whether cost sharing structures create barriers to medical care.The law says the Legislature and the Green Mountain Care Board must set the actuarial value of a Green Mountain Care health plan. A plan’s actuarial value is the percentage of costs born by the health plan. The individual patient is liable for the remaining percentage.Metal Level Acturial Value Range (in pct.)Bronze: 58-62Silver: 68-72Gold: 78-82Platinum: 88-92A set of triggers built into Act 48 must be met in order to make the transition to Green Mountain Care.“To get a sense of what those actuarial values look like in practice Vermonters could look at the gold and platinum plans offered through Vermont Health Connect,” said Robin Lunge, director of Health Care Reform for the state.The actuarial value of a gold plan is between 78 percent and 82 percent, while a platinum plan is between 88 percent and 92 percent.State employees and many of Vermont’s unions have more generous health plans that, in addition to low premiums, have minimal cost sharing with actuarial values typically at 94 percent.Those plans are the result of collective bargaining over many years, and labor groups, advocates and pro-labor lawmakers are likely to push for a higher actuarial value in Green Mountain Care.However, if the actuarial value of union members’ health plans is lowered as a result of their integration into a universal system, it would give them leverage to push for higher salaries.The administration will present options for cost sharing designs to the Green Mountain Care Board at the end of the year or early next year when it plans to present options for a financing plan and benefits package, Lunge said.last_img read more

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DiGiCo’s Quantum7 is the Audio Hub for the NBA’s Season Restart

first_imgFirehouse Productions supplies three Quantum7 desks and nine SD-Racks for the most unique sports ecosphere in history as the NBA compresses a normal eight-month season into less than half thatORLANDO, Florida – August 2020 – The NBA’s 2019-2020 season looked like it was going to be one of the most exciting yet. However, it was interrupted on March 11 by the COVID-19-induced sports shutdown, just before its Playoff series was to begin in April. Instead, the NBA reformatted its season, with teams playing the remaining regular-season games, Playoffs and Finals on three courts in the Wide World of Sports complex in Orlando, Florida from July 30 through October 13.All of these games feature court sound done in a way as never before. Each venue has two sound systems: one aimed at the court, and the other at the audience. The court system is designed to immerse the NBA players in crowd and live venue sounds to emulate their traditional experience. This system is mixed through a DiGiCo Quantum7 console in each of the WWoS’s three venues: the Arena, the main national-telecast court and site of Conference Finals and NBA Finals; the HP Field House court, used for the regular season to Second Round; and the Visa Athletic Center, used for games broadcast exclusively by regional sports networks.“It’s a beast,” says Firehouse Productions Vice President Mark Dittmar, referring to the Quantum7, “and that’s an understatement.” The consoles—three DiGiCo SD7 desks each updated with new Quantum engines—are the hubs for all of the audio elements that are feeding these courts. Those elements include over 1,500 individual audio clips such as cheers, boos, and other reaction sounds. These are stored on media servers and collected from a variety of authentic sources, including originally produced content, foley, and content provided by the teams and the league. In addition, the Quantum7 creates a 5.1 version of the audience sounds that is sent to broadcast for on-air use.Dittmar says the Quantum7 assigned to the Arena was the first to be programmed and became the template for the other two Quantum7 desks. “Once we got all of our basic relative levels set there, the only mixing that’s done is on the systems that the people controlling these crowd and other sound effects are using during the games,” he explains. “The DiGiCos then become these big, reliable routers that are used for the live sound for the entire season.”The identical configuration of each console means that any of Firehouse Productions’ A1s can move between the venues and sit at a console where they know immediately where each I/O—and there are nearly 160 inputs in each venue feeding about 56 outputs—is assigned. “Every mixer will have the exact same experience,” he adds. “And that’s a huge advantage that that keeps the sound very consistent from game to game.”The Quantum7 consoles, and the three 32-bit I/O-equipped SD-Racks each of the three desks uses to manage that huge input array, feed L-Acoustics PA systems in each venue, whose sound is focused on the field of play. The Arena system comprises 60 L-Acoustics K2 loudspeakers configured as 10 hangs of six enclosures each, buttressed by a  dozen L-Acoustics KS28 subs, with a slightly smaller PA deployed in the Visa and HP venues.But the consoles are more than massive routers. Dittmar points out that the Quantum7 desks also provide monitor input to the mixers handling the crowd sounds and sound effects, and they additionally deliver a discrete 5.1-surround feed to the broadcast compound. “The Quantum7s reliably handle a huge workflow,” he says. And the consoles’ features are also making their presence felt, providing the slots for the Dante cards that are taking in the audio from those submixers, 10 channels each from three laptop sources per venue.“No other console that I know of can handle that kind of huge input load,” says Dittmar. “It’s an awesome tool for the scope of this. These are extremely high channel counts feeding a unique PA system for a major-league sports event that’s never been done before. For its reliability under that kind of pressure, for its processing capability, and for its I/O capacity… that’s why DiGiCo’s Quantum7 was the only choice for this.”For information on this season’s NBA schedule, visit www.nba.com. Firehouse Productions can be found online at www.firehouseproductions.com.last_img read more

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What is the gut microbiota and how does it affect mind and body?

first_imgShare Share on Twitter LinkedIn The human gastrointestinal tract harbours trillions of microorganisms, consisting of up to 1,000 or so different bacterial species.These bacteria, known collectively as the gut microbiota, perform a number of vital functions in our body. They defend against pathogens, aid in digestion and nutrient absorption, produce vitamins (K and B), and boost our immune system.The gut microbiota also has the potential to influence our brain development and behaviour. Our gut and the central nervous system constantly communicate with each other by releasing signalling molecules. The gut microbiota is also involved in this communication process, known as the microbiota-gut–brain axis. Pinterestcenter_img Share on Facebook Email Our microbiota is uniqueThe composition of the gut microbiota is unique to each individual (even identical twins) and can be affected by many factors including diet, diseases and ageing.Our gastrointestinal tract is nearly sterile at birth, but quickly transits to one with a diverse microbial community. The composition of this community depends on many factors, including:the composition of our mother’s gut microbiotathe way we are born (vaginal or caesarean delivery)our early diet (including being breast of formula fed as an infant)early life events such as diseases and stressthe use of antibiotics and other medicationshygiene conditionsthe environment.By the age of three, the gut microbiota stabilises, and its evolution continues at a steadier rate during adulthood.How gut imbalance affects the moodAn imbalance of beneficial versus harmful gut bacteria, known as “dysbiosis”, has been linked to a number of nervous system, gastrointestinal and psychological disorders.Exposure to early life stress – including psychological, sexual and physical abuse – can increase the risk of gastrointestinal disorders later in life. The exact reason is unknown but it may be because the establishment of stable gut microbiota is disrupted.Stress and psychological factors can make these functional gastrointestinal disorders worse. A recent animal study showed that as little as two hours of stress was enough to change the composition of gut microbiota.Another study showed two weeks of stress could influence the changes in the gut microbiota composition as well as induce some anxiety-related behaviour in mice. Researchers found a correlation between specific elements of anxiety-related behaviour and elements of the gut microbiota.Research also shows that people suffering from gastrointestinal disorders are more susceptible to anxiety-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder.Although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood as yet, there is clear evidence of a connection between the microbiota, gut and brain.Role of probioticsProbiotics are live microorganisms that have been delivering health benefits for thousands of years by helping to establish healthy gut microbiota. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics.The mechanisms responsible for the beneficial impact of probiotics on health are not well known, however accumulating evidence suggests they help colonization of the gut microbiota with beneficial microorganisms.Treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders with probiotics has yielded mixed results to date. This may be because not all probiotics are the same. And the same probiotic strain can exert different effects in different hosts.However, probiotic therapy holds promise for future applications both in functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric illness.Of particular interest is a recently identified class of probiotics that have been categorised as “psychobiotics” due to their possible antidepressant or qualities. These have been shown to relieve anxiety in patients suffering from functional gastrointestinal disorders.What else we can do?While there is an obvious connection between gut microbiota and brain, scientists have more questions than answers about this complex relationship.What we do know is that promoting the establishment of a healthy gut microbial community in early life is the best way to harness the power of the microbiota throughout life.Breastfeeding is one of the most important practices to establish friendly gut microbiota in early life. Breastfed infants usually have healthier and more diverse gut microbiota than formula-fed infants. Breast milk also contains healthy microbial communities and materials that stimulate the growth of beneficial gut microbes and probiotics.We can improve the gut microbiota composition as well as prevent many diseases by simply changing our diet. Modern Western meals are high in sugar and fat, and low in fibre, which may affect the establishment of beneficial gut microbiota.Fibre-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits and whole-grain cereals are essential to promote the growth and activity of beneficial gut microbiota.By Senaka Ranadheera, Early Career Research Fellow, Advanced Food Systems Research Unit, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University; Deborah Hodgson, Pro Vice-Chancellor Research & Innovation, University of Newcastle, and Javad Barouei, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, DavisThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.last_img read more

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Commercial Vehicle Group Announces New Vice President and General Manager

first_imgNEW ALBANY, OH — Bill Haushalter has joined the Commercial Vehicle Group (CVG) as the new vice president and general manager of the CVG Electrical/Mechanical Division. Commercial Vehicle Group supplies interior systems, vision safety solutions and other cab-related products for the global commercial vehicle market, including the heavy-duty (Class 8) truck market, the construction market and other specialized transportation markets. AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement Haushalter has 23 years of experience serving in the electrical/electronic components segment of the commercial vehicle market. Previously, he served as the vice president of global business development for the Stoneridge Corp. His background also includes positions as senior financial analyst, director of sales and marketing, vice president of business development and vice president of product development and strategic marketing. Haushalter will report to Jerry Armstrong, the president of CVG Americas. Haushalter holds a bachelor’s of science degree in engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and a master’s degree in business administration from the University of Chicago. For more information about Commercial Vehicle Group: www.cvgrp.com . _______________________________________ Click here to view the rest of today’s headlines.last_img read more

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SRA’s trust exercise ‘far removed’ from our world, say City lawyers

first_imgThe City of London Law Society (CLLS) has said the focus of the Solicitors Regulation Authority’s consultation on breaches of professional standards does not reflect the issues facing City lawyers.Responding to the SRA’s Question of Trust consultation, the CLLS said that scenarios so far considered to help form a proposed ‘regulatory framework’ to pinpoint the most serious breaches are ‘far removed’ from the day-to-day issues faced by lawyers in large commercial firms.The response continued: ‘The framework of suggested responses may appear irrelevant or insufficiently tailored to the very different working environment and set of issues and concerns that tend to arise when working for sophisticated corporate and banking clients.’It also noted that the consultation explicitly deals with practising solicitors and those involved directly in delivering advice to clients, rather than addressing firm breaches.The CLLS said that due to the importance for the City of the relationship between the SRA’s concerns about individuals and associated concerns about firms, it was difficult to comment sensibly on the consultation, which is only ‘one part of the full picture’.It added: ‘Problems caused by individuals will often become problems for the firm (including reputationally).’The CLLS also warned against the proposal to create a ‘reference framework’, echoing concerns raised by the Law Society last week.The CLLS suggested that instead the SRA should list the facts it will take into account, such as the degree of harm suffered by the client or the level of sophistication of the client.The society’s response said: ‘There is an inherent danger in producing a tabulated reference framework setting out the SRA’s views on likely outcomes in relation to particular concerns. This may come to be applied to rigidly […] and suggests a move towards a “box-ticking” approach to compliance and enforcement’.This approach, the response warned, could result in perceived unfairness if the framework is overridden, and would not be able to address the myriad of different combination of factors that are at play in real-life scenarios.The response also noted that some of the serious sanctions, such as striking off or suspensions, are within the jurisdiction of the Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal, and said it was not clear how the SRA’s code and the SDT’s jurisdiction would interrelate, potentially creating confusion.The SRA consultation employed interactive online voting and a nationwide tour of practitioners to establish a framework for regulatory decisions. The process, which attracted 2,350 online responses, closed on Sunday. Any action in response is likely to be announced in the summer.last_img read more

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Faiveley Transport to supply NSW EMU subsystems

first_imgAUSTRALIA: Wabtec Corp subsidiary Faiveley Transport has been awarded contracts totalling more than US$150m to supply subsystems and maintenance services for 56 double-deck electric multiple-units which the RailConnect NSW consortium of Hyundai Rotem, UGL and Mitsubishi Electric Australia is to supply for NSW TrainLink Intercity services.Faiveley sites in Australia, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India and Italy will provide the complete braking systems, HVAC, interior and exterior door systems, driver vigilance units, pantographs and energy monitoring systems for the 512 vehicles. Delivery of the equipment is scheduled to be completed by September 2020, and the contract also includes 15 years of maintenance.‘This contract further reinforces our leading position in the region and confirms our ability to support our customers globally’, said Wabtec President & CEO Raymond T Betler on November 7. ‘It also represents a great success for Wabtec and Faiveley Transport, with all of our major product lines represented on-board the new trains.’last_img read more

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Botswana announces measures to combat drought

first_imgBotswana drought likely to cause food crisis Botswana decided to implement measures to cushion the country from a looming drought after President Mokgweetsi Masisi declared the year 2018-2019 a drought year.Botswana President Mokgweetsi MasisiMasisi was informed about the situation by a report on the drought and household food supply assessment and analysis.Boipolelo Khumomatlhare, head of the country’s Rural Development Ministry, said the relief measures will start from July 1 this year to June 30, 2020.The measures include restocking the strategic grain reserve, increasing current livestock drought subsidy for feeds, vaccines and drugs, and expanding the coverage of the subsidy.Khumomatlhare said the finance ministry also plans to pay 85 percent of seasonal loans that farmers obtained from various financial institutions.In addition, the government intends to continue providing direct feeding in health facilities and to introduce a special “food basket” to children in certain districts.The southern African country is experiencing the drought after the 2018-2019 rainy season was characterized by uneven distribution of rains, heat waves and dry spells, leading to smaller planted areas and crop failures.Last year, Botswanan authority warned that hundreds of thousands of livestock and people were left vulnerable to the impacts of climate change-induced drought that hit the country between 2014 and 2017.Related Botswana swears in new presidentcenter_img Elephants trample Botswana soldier to deathlast_img read more

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